18 August 2008

Utkal University

Front gate of Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India, where I had spent two years of my life while doing my Masters in Geology.

27 May 2008

Another Flower

Photo of a flower from our garden, Camera Sony Cyber shot 5 MP.

Wild flower

This photo of a wild flower was taken by a sony Cyber shot 5 MP camera. My First forays into digital photography.

26 May 2008

Art by me and Maa

The landscape was painted by me long back.....about 15 years ago. The other one is an embroidery work by my Mother....this style of working on clothes is called PIPILI work ...........on the name of a famous place in Orissa, India.......from where this kind of embroidery originates.

28 March 2008

Photographs from my days in South Australia.

11 January 2008

Hazaron Khwahishen

posting here the opening lines (matla) of a ghazal by Mirza Ghalib.....one of my favourite stanzas...because of its profound philosophy....because of its practicality....because of its fantastic use of urdu language...something that only Ghalib could have written.........
हज़ारो ख्वाहिशे ऐसी कि हर ख्वाहिश पे दम निकले
बहुत निकले मेरे अरमान लेकिन फिरभी कम निकले

05 January 2008


Sometimes I feel like a bird in a cage...unable to break open the net around me, the net of uncertainties..the shackles of corruption and inefficiency that has pervaded the Indian society...all because of the greed and meanness of people at the helm...India needs hardworking, honest, upright and kind people.

"Happy New Year" in Different Languages

Afgani Saale Nao Mubbarak
Afrikaans Gelukkige nuwe jaar
Albanian Gezuar Vitin e Ri
Armenian Snorhavor Nor Tari
Arabic Antum salimoun
Assyrian Sheta Brikhta
Azeri Yeni Iliniz Mubarek!
Bengali Shuvo Nabo Barsho
Bulgarian ×åñòèòà Íîâà Ãîäèíà(pronounced "Chestita Nova Godina")
Cambodian Soursdey Chhnam Tmei
Chinese Xin Nian Kuai Le
Corsican Language Pace e Salute
Croatian Sretna Nova godina!
Cymraeg (Welsh) Blwyddyn Newydd Dda
Czechoslovakia Scastny Novy Rok
Denish Godt Nytår
Dhivehi Ufaaveri Aa Aharakah Edhen
Eskimo Kiortame pivdluaritlo
Esperanto Felican Novan Jaron
Estonians Head uut aastat!
Finnish Onnellista Uutta Vuotta
French Bonne Annee
Gaelic Bliadhna mhath ur
Galician [NorthWestern Spain] Bo Nadal e Feliz Aninovo
German Prosit Neujahr
Greek Kenourios Chronos
Gujarati Nutan Varshbhinandan
Hawaiian Hauoli Makahiki Hou
Hebrew L'Shannah Tovah
Hindi Naye Varsha Ki Shubhkamanyen
Hong kong (Cantonese) Sun Leen Fai Lok
Hungarian Boldog Ooy Ayvet
Indonesian Selamat Tahun Baru
Iranian Saleh now mobarak
Iraqi Sanah Jadidah
Irish Bliain nua fe mhaise dhuit
Italian: Felice anno nuovo
Japan: Akimashite Omedetto Gozaimasu
Kabyle: Asegwas Amegaz
Kannada: Hosa Varushadha Shubhashayagalu
Khmer: Sua Sdei tfnam tmei
Korea: Saehae Bock Mani ba deu sei yo!
Lithuanian: Laimingu Naujuju Metu
Laotian: Sabai dee pee mai
Macedonian Srekjna Nova Godina
Malay Selamat Tahun Baru
Marathi : Nveen Varshachy Shubhechcha
Malayalam : Puthuvatsara Aashamsakal
Maltese Is-Sena t- Tajba
Nepal Nawa Barsha ko Shuvakamana
Norwegian Godt Nyttår
Papua New Guinea Nupela yia i go long yu
Pampango (Philippines) Masaganang Bayung Banua
persian Saleh now ra tabrik migouyam
Philippines Manigong Bagong Taon
Polish: Szczesliwego Nowego Roku
Portuguese Feliz Ano Novo
Punjabi Nave sal di mubarak
Russian S Novim Godom
Samoa Manuia le Tausaga Fou
Serbo-Croatian Sretna nova godina
Sindhi Nayou Saal Mubbarak Hoje
Singhalese Subha Aluth Awrudhak Vewa
siraiki Nawan Saal Shala Mubarak Theevay
Slovak A stastlivy Novy Rok
Slovenian sreèno novo leto
Somali Iyo Sanad Cusub Oo Fiican!
Spanish Feliz Ano ~Nuevo
Swahili Heri Za Mwaka Mpyaº
Swedish GOTT NYTT ÅR! /Gott nytt år!
Sudanese Warsa Enggal
Tamil Eniya Puthandu Nalvazhthukkal
Telugu Noothana samvatsara shubhakankshalu
Thai Sawadee Pee Mai
Turkish Yeni Yiliniz Kutlu Olsun
Ukrainian Shchastlyvoho Novoho Roku
Urdu Naya Saal Mubbarak Ho
Uzbek Yangi Yil Bilan
Vietnamese Chuc Mung Tan Nien
Welsh : Blwyddyn Newydd Dda!

I have gathered this information from : http://festivals.iloveindia.com/new-year/in-different-languages.html

04 January 2008

Bengali Brahmins

Hi friends,
got into some root hunting yesterday. I am a bengali brahmin as far as Indian caste system goes, not that I am much into casteism, but I thought "hey, what the heck, let me delve a little into my roots, and see if I can understand my history"....so there I go and search about bengali brahmins in the net, about the origin and genealogy of Bhattacharjees and Bannerjees, and I am posting the results of my search in my blog. Most of the matter is from Wikipedia. I also got something from www.bhattacharya.us. all that I am posting is a general historical perspective on bengali brahmins and nothing particular about my own family lineage. All matters from net.

Bengali Brahmins

Bengali Brahmins are those Brahmins who traditionally reside in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, currently comprising the Indian state of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and Bangladesh. When the British left India in 1947, carving out a separate nation (see partition) of East Pakistan (which became Bangladesh in 1971), a number of families moved to be within the borders of the newly defined secular Indian Republic, and continued to migrate for several decades thereafter.

Bengali Brahmins are generally well-educated, and a number of prominent figures of India belong to this community. They had leanings toward Shaktism and Tantra . Varendra, for instance, meant rain-maker magicians[1]. Historically, they have been the standard bearers of Madhyadeshiya (the historic-cultural region of the upper Ganga-Yamuna doab which was the seat of Panch-Gauda brahmins) Indo-Aryan culture in Bengal. Panch-Gauda and Panch-Dravida are two chief divisions of Brahmins, as per Rajatarangini of Kalhana.

Meaning :(The-) Karnatakas, Tailangas, Dravidas, Maharashtrakas and Gurjaras; these five(-types who-) live south of Vindhya (- mountains) are (called-) "five Dravidas" (- brahmins); (whereas-) Sarasvatas, Kanyakubjas, Gaudas, Utkalas, and Maithilas, who live north of Vindhya (- mountains) are known as "five Gaudas" (-brahmins)[2].

Dorilal Sarma says that the 'Five Gaudas' mentioned above were settled in region around Indus (Sarasvata brahmins), Kannauj and its territories (Kanyakubja brahmins),Mithila (Maithil Brahmins)and Orissa (Utkala Brahmins); the fifth branch Gauda brahmins settleed in the remaining areas north of Vindhya mountains ,in two distinct regions (1)Haryana and adjacent districts of Rajasthan and western Uttar Pradesh, and (2) northern Kosala around ancient Sravasti; he quotes Matsya Purana (chapter-12, sloka 30) in which Sravasti is said to be seat of Gauda brahmins [3]. According to this view, South Bihar, Bengal, Assam, etc were not inhabited by any of the brahmins mentioned by Kalhana. Hence, at the time of Kalhana, Bengali brahmins had not emerged as a distinct branch of Panch-Gauda. But all Bengali brahmins are descendants of Panch-Gauda, excepting some Dak?i?atyas Vaidikas who came from South India originally but are now part and parcel of Bengali brahmins [4]. Gauda meant the region from western Uttar Pradesh to Rajasthan, but it was also used for Bengal in mediaeval age. Entire North India was also called Gauda country, which is the reason why five north Indian branches have received the common name Panch-Gauda [5].

* 1 History
o 1.1 Traditional accounts
* 2 Divisions among Bengali Brahmins
o 2.1 Radhi
o 2.2 Varendra
o 2.3 Vaidikas
o 2.4 Saptasati
o 2.5 Others
* 3 Impact of British occupation
* 4 Naming conventions
* 5 Famous Bengali Brahmins
o 5.1 Pre-1947
o 5.2 Post-1947
* 6 Notes
* 7 References
* 8 See also
* 9 External links

A large scale migration of Brahmins from Kanyakubja region occurred during Pala and Sena periods. However historical evidence attests significant presence of Brahmins in Bengal since the Maurya period. The Jain Acharya Bhadrabahu, regarded to be the preceptor of Chandragupta Maurya is said to have been born in Brahmin family of Pundravardhana ( or Pu??ra , the region north of Ganges and west of Brahmaputra in Bengal, later known as Varendra). A copper-plate grant from the Gupta period found in the vicinity of Somapura mentions a Brahmin donating land to a Jain vihara at Vatagohali. Such evidences suggest Pu??ra or Varendra and regions west of Bhagirathi (called Radha in ancient age) to be seats of brahmins from ancient times; Radhi and Varendra are still chief branches of Bengali brahmins settled in these regions [6]..

The three main divisions among Bengali brahmins are :

* Radhi from Radh (region south-west of Ganga).
* Varendra, from Varendra region (North-East) or Pu??ra.
* Vaidika (migrants, originally experts of Vedic knowledge).

Traditional accounts

The traditional accounts of the origin are given in texts termed Kulagranthas (e.g., Kuladipika), composed around the 17th century. They mention a ruler named Adisura who invited five Brahmins from Kanyakubja [7], so that he could conduct a yajña, because he could not find Vedic experts locally. Traditional texts mention that Adisura was ancestor of Ballal Sena from maternal side and five brahmins had been invited in AD 1077 [8].

Historians have located a ruler named Adisura ruling in north Bihar, but not in Bengal[citations needed]. But Ballal Sena and his predecessors ruled over both Bengal and Mithila (i.e., North Bihar). It is unlikely that the brahmins from Kanyakubja may have been invited to Mithila for performing a yajña, because Mithila was a strong base of brahmins since Vedic age [9].

Another account mentions a king Shyamal Varma who invited five Brahmins from Kanyakubja who became the progenitors of the Vaidika Brahmins. A third account refers to five brahmins being the ancestors of Varendra brahmins as well. From similarity of titles (e.g., upadhyaya), the first account is most probable.

Divisions among Bengali Brahmins

The three main divisions of Bengali Brahmins are

* (1) Radhi from Radh , modern West Bengal south of Ganges.
* (2) Varendra, from Varendra region (North-East)
* (3) Vaidika

Other minor divisions are :

* (4) Saptasati
* (5) Pirali
* (6) Patita

It is believed that the Brahmins of Bengal adapted kulinism from a similar hierarchical system used by the Brahmins of Mithila, although Kanyakubja and more especially Saryupariya were also highly scrupulous. The five original Brahmins belonged to five gotras : Sandilya, Kasyapa, Vatsa, Bhardvaja, Savar?a [10].

Both Brahmins and Kayasthas in Bengal have followed a system that ranks the clans hierarchically. The Kulinas formed the higher ranking clans.


Radhi (also Ra?hi in some old texts) is the major branch of Bengali brahmins . The descendants of these five Pancyajñika brahmins were hierarchically organised into three categories :

(1) Kulin comprised the most noble brahmins among these, who possessed all the nine qualities fixed by Ballal Sena (nine qualities or "navadha lula lak?anam" were :achara, vinaya, vidya, prati??ha, tirtha, darsana, karma, ni??ha, sre??ha-vritti, tapa, dana) [11].

(2)Srotriya is the second rank among the descendants of these five brahmins because they were deft in Vedic knowledge but were considered to be somewhat inferior to the Kulina brahmins (possessing 8 out of 9 noble qualities).

(3)Vamsaja is the third rank which was a result of kulinas marrying outside kulinas [12].

Major titles adopted by the high Radhi brahmins :

* Vandopadhyaya and its adaptation Banerjee
* Mukhopadhyaya and its adaptation Mukherjee
* Chattopadhyaya and its adaptation Chatterjee
* Gangopadhyaya and its adaptation Ganguli / Ganguly

Jati-Bha?kar mentions that those who were given grants along the Ganges by Ballal Sena were called Gangopadhyaya (literally 'the Vedic teachers in the regions around the Ganges')[13].

Mukhopadhyaya means chief Vedic teacher. Vandopadhyaya is a Sanskritized form of 'Vanodha + upadhyaya' , Vanodha being the ancient name of Raebareli-Unnava whence their ancestors had come from [14].


These brahmins also claim descent from five original brahmins, although four out of five names are different, and they are also hierarchically organised into three groups :

(1) Sri Kulin compring of Maitra(Moitra), Lahiri, Bagachi, Bhaduri, Sanyal, etc.

(2) Srotriya have Nanda, Bhato Shastri, Karanja, Laduli, Navasi, etc.

(3) Ka??a Kulin comprise of 85 gains (villages given in grant by Sena kings).

Another intermediate order is called Kapa(originally Kulin but negligent in duty) which is between first two.

Other famous titles of Varendra brahmins are Bhattacharya, Majumdara, Rai, Choudhary, Jovadara,Mishra,Taluqdar, etc. There were many big landlords among Varendra brahmins. Literally , Bhattacharya meant 'experts of Vedic rituals'. Rai and Choudhary were administrative titles.


These are of two types :

* Dak?i?atyas (coming from South India originally but now part and parcel of Bengali brahmins.
* Paschatyas, coming from western and northern India originally but now part of Bengali brahmins.

These were experts of Vaidika knowledge who were invited to Bengal in different ages, later than the original five brahmins from which Radhi brahmins originated.


Before the coming of Five Brahmins, there were 700 houses of brahmins in Bengal, but now they are few. They were less learned than the migrants and therefore were deprived of patronage. Some of them mixed with the immigrants, which explains their decline in relative population. Many Saptasatis became priests of lower castes and were labelled as Agradani and grahavipra. Main titles are Arath, Balkhavi, Jagaye, Pikhoori, Mulkajoori, Bhagaye, Gai, etc.


* Pirali : literally, boycotted brahmins. Some kulin brahmins mixed with muslims in eating and other activities and were therefore boycotted by the orthodox sections. Prominent among these were Thakurs, anglicised as Tagores. Thakurs literally meant lords and were big landowners.
* Patita : Some Bengali brahmins were publicly declared to be fallen brahmins.

Chakraborty (Chakravarti) is essentially a k?atriya title suitable for emperors adopted by some Bengali brahmins.

Another peculiar title is Chir Kori or Chir Ko?i.

Impact of British occupation

The kulinist system degenerated during the 18-19th century and is no longer popular. The British occupation of Bengal radically transformed the Bengali culture. Bengal has now gone through two century of missionary efforts and a quarter century of a Marxist government. Eastern Bengal became an Muslim majority region in mid-19th century which resulted in the first partition of Bengal in 1905, and then final partition in 1947. Although the interaction with the British resulting in what is termed the Bengal Renaissance, it altered the hold of traditional mainstream Hinduism in the region.

Naming conventions

Many Bengali Brahmin family names are written in two different ways. For example, Chattopadhyay (compound of village name "Cha??a" and "upadhyaya" denoting "priest, teacher" originally granted with the village named Cha??a) is the Sanskritized form of the local Prakrit word "chaturjye", anglicized to Chatterjee.

Similar analyses may be performed on Mukhurjye/Mukherjee/Mukhopadhyaya and Banurjye/Banerjee/Bandyopadhyaya. Bhattacharya which is made by two words Bhatta and Acharya which means teacher also called as Bhattacharjee. Tagore is the anglicized form of Thakur, meaning "lord". Other Bengali Brahmin family names are anglicized in particular ways that have become the standard English spellings over time. Other Bengali Brahmin surnames are Chakraborty, Sanyal, Ghoshal etc.

Famous Bengali Brahmins


* Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486 - 1534), ascetic, founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism
* Ramakrishna Paramhansa
* Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833), Hindu reformer and founder of Brahmo Samaj
* Debendranath Tagore (1817-1905) A leading proponent of Brahmo Samaj
* Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820 - 1891) Polymath
* Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay (1838-1894), author and one of the founders of Indian nationalism
* Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay Author of famouls novels like Devdas, Parineeta etc. and one of the most popular Bengali novelist and story-teller
* Sukanta Bhattacharya Poet
* Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), poet, philosopher and nationalist
* Abanindranath Tagore Author, Painter.
* Jatindra Nath Mukherjee (Bagha Jatin) (1879-1915), revolutionary leader
* Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Ramakrishna Paramahansa) (1836-1886), Revered Religious leader, led Hindu revival
* Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee
* Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay (1876-1938) popular and sometimes controversial novelist
* Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
* Rakhal Das Banerjee (1885-1930) archaeologist, Mohenjo-daro excavations
* Manabendra Nath Roy (1887-1954), a founder of Indian Communism
* Dwarkanath Tagore (1794-1846) One of the earliest entrepreneurs from India. Founded the first Indo-British agency house from India, Carr, Tagore and Company.
* W C Banerjee. Founder of Indian National Congress
* Upendra Kishore Roychoudhuri. Famous Children's litterateur-- whose grandson Satyajit Roy went on to win the Oscar for lifetime achievement in film direction.
* Vibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay. Novelist, author of 'Pather Panchali'.


* Kishore Kumar Ganguly , Great Singer, Actor
* Ashok Kumar Ganguly, Actor
* First Air Chief Marshall of India Subroto Mukerjee
* Sitar Player Ravi Shankar
* Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, founder president, Bhartiya Jana Sangh
* Buddhadeb Bhattacharya Chief Minister of West Bengal since 2000.
* Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay
* Sunil Gangopadhyay
* Suchitra Bhattacharya
* Bharati Mukherjee
* Banaphool(Balaichand Mukherjee)
* poet Subhash Mukhopadhyay
* Famous Comedian/Actor Keshto Mukherjee
* actor Joy Mukherjee
* actor Jaya Bhaduri
* actor Soumitra Chatterjee
* actor Uttamkumar (Arun Kumar Chatterjee)
* actor Victor Banerjee
* film actresses Madhabi Mukherjee
* Rani Mukherjee
* Kajol
* biologist Eric Mukherjee
* painter Benode Behari Mukherjee
* musician Budhaditya Mukherjee
* music director Hemanta Mukhopadhyay
* singer Amit Kumar
* popular singer Shaan
* singer Shreya Ghoshal
* singer Madhushree
* singer Abhijeet
* singer Kumar Sanu
* Calcutta's mayor Subrata Mukherjee
* director Hrishikesh Mukherjee
* director Basu Chatterjee
* director Basu Bhattacharya
* Actor Mithun Chakraborty
* Sitar Player Nikhil Banerjee
* police commissioner Prasun Mukherjee
* tennis player Jaideep Mukherjee
* India's current External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee
* Music Director Bappi Lahiri
* Music Director Pritam Chakraborty
* Sourav Ganguly, former captain of Indian cricket team
* Satyajit Roy, Oscar-winning film director
* Jhumpa Lahiri, Pulitzer Prize Winning author of "Interpreter of Maladies" and acclaimed novel 'The Namesake'
* Upamanyu Chatterjee, Civil Servant and author of 'English, August'
* Mashumi Chatterjee, Film Actress
* Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, American author


1. ^ Vari+indra, Vari meant water : cf.A History of Brahmin Clans , page 283.
2. ^ cf. Kalhana's Rajatarangini in reference for English version.
3. ^ (A History of Brahmin Clans, p.41-42)
4. ^ A History of Brahmin Clans, p.288
5. ^ Adi Gauda Dipika quoted in A History of Brahmin Clans, p.100
6. ^ cf. History of Brahmin Clans,page 281
7. ^ cf. History of Brahmin Clans,page 281-283
8. ^ cf. History of Brahmin Clans,page 281 : this book quotes Krishna-Charita by Vidyasagar for dating.
9. ^ cf. D.D. kosambi, p. 123.
10. ^ cf. History of Brahmin Clans,page 282 : it quotes Kula-dipika, a mediaeval text.
11. ^ Kuladipika quoted in History of Brahmin Clans,page 283
12. ^ Kuladipika quoted in History of Brahmin Clans,page 283
13. ^ Jati-Bha?kar quoted in History of Brahmin Clans,page 285
14. ^ History of Brahmin Clans,page 287


* Kalhana's Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir; 3 Volumes > M.A.Stein (translator),(Introduction by Mohammad Ishaq Khan),published by Saujanya Books at Srinagar,2007,(First Edition pub. in 1900),ISBN 81-8339-043-9 / 8183390439.
* A History of Brahmin Clans (Brahma?a Va?shõ ka Itihasa) in Hindi, by Dorilal Sarma,published by Rastriya Brahamana Mahasabha, Vimal Building, Jamirabad, Mitranagar, Masudabad,Aligarh-1, 2nd ed-1998. (This Hindi book contains the most exhaustive list of Brahmana gotras and pravaras together their real and mythological histories).
* Jati-Bha?kara by Pt. Jwala Prasad Misra, published by Khemaraj Shrikrishnadas,(1914).
* An Introduction to the Study of Indian History, by Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi, Popular Prakasan,35c Tadeo Road, Popular Press Building, Bombay-400034, First Edition: 1956, Revised Second Edition: 1975.
* NN Vasu, Vanger Jatiya Itihas (Bangla), 2 vols, Calcutta, 1321 BS.
* Atul Sur, Banglar Samajik Itihas (Bangla), Calcutta, 1976
* NN Bhattacharyya, Bharatiya Jati Varna Pratha (Bangla), Calcutta, 1987
* RC Majumdar, Vangiya Kulashastra (Bangla), 2nd ed, Calcutta, 1989.

Bhattacharya is the Bengali Indian surname. According to the Indian Caste System, Bhattacharyas are top rung Bengali Brahmins. The surname is spread in both Rarhi and Barendra Kulin Brahmins holding different Brahmin Gotra.

Bhattacharya literally means master teacher, or learned teacher, and was, like today's doctorate, awarded to people who were learned. Of course, it was specialized to the learned in spiritual matters, as opposed to administering land etc.

The most likely origin is that Bhattacharya [Bhattacharjee] was used for those teachers who were educated in the art of worshipping (singing praises to the gods), and whose main occupation, apart from teaching, was officiating at worships.

The Bengali word bhaTTa came from the Sanskrit word bhartR (the loss of the retroflex r led to the dental t being replaced by the retroflex T, and the weight of syllable was maintained by doubling the consonant). The meaning is master (someone who maintains), but was used for those who sang praises. AcArya is Sanskrit from coming near: used for a teacher who teaches students who stay with him.

There is also a traditional story that this was a title given to people who had read and understood two books of Hindu Philosophy, specifically the school of logic: one by kumArila bhaTTa and another by AcArya dikSita.

Bhattacharyyas in Bhatpara

We the Bhattacharyyas from Bhatpara are proud of our heritage. Having proof of more than 30 generations is both a matter of pride and lineage.


The family history was prepared and tabulated by “Bani Mandir” of Bhatpara and Calcutta, Research and Investigation team – through discourse with many different families and painstakingly going through old documents and scriptures. The table was first prepared on 10th April 1959. There are many discrepancies that have been addressed in this web site.
During the reign of Adisura around 940 or 990 AD, a Vaidya King of Bengal wanted to organize a yajna (sacrifice) to counteract a drought that threatened human existence. At that time the Brahmins that lived in Bengal (it is quite possible that there were no Brahmins in Bengal then) were not learned enough to perform it. Adisura requested Virsinha, the King of Kanya Kubjya (Kanauj), to send him some Brahmins well versed in the Vedas and competent enough to perform the intended yajna. Five Brahmins were sent to the kingdom: Bhattanarayana [The famous Tagore family owes its origin to Bhatta-narayan] who was said to be of Sandilya Gotra, a direct descendant of sage Sandilya; Sriharsha of Bharadwaja Gotra, from the sage Bharadwaja; Vedagarva of Sawarna Gotra, from the sage Sawarna; Chhandara of Vatsya Gotra, from the sage Vatsya; and Daksha of Kasyapa Gotra from the sage Kasyapa. At this time there is a distinct possibility of a prior existence of around 700 Brahmin families in Bengal. These five Brahmins brought five Kayastha servants with them Makaranda Ghosh; Kali Dasa Mitra; Dasaratha Guha; Dasartha Basu and Purushottama Datta. These five Brahmins as well as their servants the five Kayasthas were afterwards honored as the Kulin. Of these, those who lived in the Barendra land of North Bengal were called the Barendra Brahmins and those who lived in West Bengal were called Rarhi Brahmins. Those who are not Kulins among the Rarhis are called Banysagas and among the Barendras are called Kafs. Although the Barendra and the Rarhis were from the same origin they wouldn't socially mix with one other. Many years after Adisura, Shyamal Varma, a Kshatriya King also brought five Brahmanas from Kanouj, Sanaka; Bhardwaja; Savarna; Sandilya; Vasistha. Five villages namely Samahtasar in Furreedpur; Navadwip in Nadia; Chandradwip in Backergunj; Kotaliparah in Furreedpur; and Joyari in Rajshahi; were granted to the five Brahmins respectively. Gotras were the family descendents of these five Brahmins. Being well versed in the Vedas, descendants of these Brahmins were called the Vaidik Brahmins. Paschatya were those who lived in West Bengal; and Dakshinatya, were those who lived in South Bengal . Though Kulinism did not exist among Vaidiks, however, the two classes did not interact with one another socially.
Much of the Brahmins' despotic behavior was a result of Kulinism. At one extreme was a Brahmin who had to keep his daughter a maid because of lack of marriageable groom, on the other hand we find instances of 300 wives to a single Kulin Brahmin.
Untainted, the Bhattacharyya families of Bhatpara ( 24 Parganas ), Bhattacharyya families of “Ita” and “Metori” village in Burdwan district, “Choa” zila in Murshidabad, Gorabazar in Saidabad, Baluchar in Giagunj, of Kolkata, and Chakraborty families of Tollygunge in Sahapur within “Magura’ parganas – belong to the same clan, as that in Kotalipara. It is therefore assumed that the entire clan is from Rishi Vedagarva. A point to note here is that Vedagarva did not start the Sandilya Gotra.